Nafpaktos - Greece

Nafpaktos is a city of 18,000 residents with exceptional beauty and long history. It is built in a strategic position for the defense of Aetolia, is the main communication junction between the Peloponnese and Central Greece, is controlling the west entrance of the Corinthian Gulf and is an intermediate station for the Western Europeans who travelled to Holy Land, it often became the apple of discord for their conquerors.

The city continuously inhabited for over 3,500 years, because of its impregnable fortification. The fortifications present successive construction phases, from antiquity to the years of Turkish occupation. They are mentioned in 426 b.c. by Thucydides, in the years of the State of Epirus the medieval castle was built in its first version and in 1407 it took its current form by the Venetians, following, however, largely the ancient fortify.

The castle occupies the site of the ancient akropolis. Two arms following the slope down, one east and the other west and near the sea, they bent and close the entrance to the small harbor with two towers. Four transverse walls connecting these two arms forming five defensive zones. The fortification is being enhanced with a total of 25 round and square towers at the outer wall.


Despite the damage and devastation which suffered, is still one of the best preserved examples of castle architecture in Greece and one of the most beautiful castles in Europe, while it has a unique combination of the mountainous acropolis, the city's fortifications and the feature port castle. The port has a horseshoe shape with an inlet opening of 35 m. and is known for its great naval epic the '' Battle of Lepanto'' (October 1571), during which the Turkish fleet was defeated by the united European powers. Today, the port adorns the statue of Miguel de Cervantes, author of the project '' Don Quixote'', who took part in this battle. 

In the town of Nafpaktos, the archaeological sites, the residues of the Venetian walls, the Byzantine churches, the Turkish buildings, the traditional and early urban buildings, the fountains, the narrow and steep paths and the staircases that offer visual leaks into monumental buildings or archaeological remains, they all function together to give its distinctive appearance and honor the history of the scene, all adds to the charm of the whole.

CHERPLAN Pilot Site: Municipality of Nafpaktia (coastal zone, town centre, mountainous area)

Pilot Activities: Housing and spatial planning aiming at sustainable development of the area.